Sancta Missa - Rituale Romanum (Roman Ritual) - Rite for baptism of children



CHAPTER II: RITE FOR BAPTISM OF CHILDREN

AT THE DOOR OF THE CHURCH

Reception of the Child

{Having versed himself in all the preparatory rules given above, the priest meets the child at the entrance or in the narthex of the church. It must be kept in mind that the formulary for baptism of a child is simply an abridgment of that for an adult. In olden times baptism of adults was not administered in one continuous ceremony but in stages spread out over a period of time, and not all of these took place within the sacred edifice. The first five steps given here reproduce in outline the onetime ceremonies of enrolling a catechumen.}

1. The priest says the greeting: Peace be with you.

He then asks the name of the child (if several are to be baptized he asks the name of each one):

Priest: What is your name?

Sponsors: N.

{From the beginning the Church has proclaimed to men the good news of salvation in Christ. And from one who wants the benefit of the good news the response of faith is demanded. To ask for baptism is first of all to ask for the faith of the Church. In the following brief dialogue between priest and subject is summed up the chief content of Christian life, of which faith is the foundation, everlasting life the goal, and love of God and of neighbor the means. The priest's role in the sacrament is pointed up here, that of representative of Christ and the Church, the role he plays from start to finish of the sacramental action.}

P (to each): N., what are you asking of God's Church?

Sponsors: Faith.

P (to each): What does faith hold out to you?

Sponsors: Everlasting life.

2. P (to each): If, then, you wish to inherit everlasting life, keep the commandments, "Love the Lord your God with all your heart, with all your soul, and with all your mind; and your neighbor as yourself."

{The next ceremony and all the following exorcisms in the rite are designed to free the subject from the power of Satan, who has this power in view of original sin. The signification is accomplished by an exhaling of breath, as to blow away something, or figuratively, the act of dispelling the evil spirit.}

3. The priest thrice breathes softly in the face of the child (each one singly), and follows up the gesture with these words:

Depart from him (her), unclean spirit, and give place to the Holy Spirit, the Advocate.

{By the cross Christ takes possession of the mind and heart of the child, fitting him to become a temple of the Blessed Trinity, and imposing on him the obligation of belief and observance of the commandments. The sign of the cross used here and throughout the rite is indicative of the essential fact that the sacrament has its efficacy from the paschal sacrifice of Jesus.}

4. With his thumb the priest traces the sign of the cross on the brow and on the breast of the child, saying (to each):

Receive the sign of the cross on your + brow and on your + heart. Put your whole trust in the heavenly teachings. And lead a life that will truly fit you to be a dwelling place for God.

{It is the express wish of the Church that opportunity be given to all who assist at her sacred functions to participate actively as far as possible (cfr. "Constitution on the Sacred Liturgy"). From here on all are to say the parts marked all for them.}

Then he adds this prayer:

For one:
Let us pray.

Lord, if it please you, hear our prayer, and by your inexhaustible power protect your chosen one, N., now marked with the sign of our Savior's holy cross. Let him (her) treasure this first sharing of your sovereign glory, and by keeping your commandments deserve to attain the glory of heaven to which those born anew are destined; through Christ our Lord.

All: Amen.
For several:
Let us pray.

Lord, if it please you, hear our prayer, and by your inexhaustible power protect your chosen ones, N. and N., now marked with the sign of our Savior's holy cross. Let them treasure this first sharing of your sovereign glory, and by keeping your commandments deserve to attain the glory of heaven to which those born anew are destined; through Christ our Lord.

All: Amen.

{Laying on of hands is a symbol with a variety of meanings. Here it is an act of appropriation. The Church acknowledges or claims the child as her own, places a protecting hand on him, and commends him to God.}

5. The priest lays his hand on the head of the child (on each one singly), after which he holds his hand outstretched and says:

(In the act of supplying ceremonies after a private baptism, notice that there are two changes of wording in the prayer below. Consult the footnotes).

For one:
Let us pray.

Almighty, everlasting God, Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, look with favor on your servant, N., whom it has[1] pleased you to call to this first step in the faith. Rid him (her) of all inward blindness. Sever all snares of Satan which heretofore bound him (her). Open wide for him (her), Lord, the door to your fatherly love. May the seal of your wisdom so penetrate him (her) as to cast out all tainted and foul inclinations, and let in the fragrance of your lofty teachings. Thus shall he (she) serve you gladly in your Church and grow daily more perfect;[2] through Christ our Lord.

All: Amen.
For several:
Let us pray.

Almighty, everlasting God, Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, look with favor on your servants, N. and N., whom it has[1] pleased you to call to this first step in the faith. Rid them of all inward blindness. Sever all snares of Satan which heretofore bound them. Open wide for them, Lord, the door to your fatherly love. May the seal of your wisdom so penetrate them, as to cast out all tainted and foul inclinations, and let in the fragrance of your lofty teachings. Thus shall they serve you gladly in your Church and grow daily more perfect;[2] through Christ our Lord.

All: Amen.

The Blessing of Salt

{Salt is a condiment meant to flavor foods and also preserve them. Among some peoples it is given to a newly arrived guest in sign of hospitality and friendship. Among the Hebrews it was eaten to symbolize the binding nature of a compact. Christ told the Apostles: "You are the salt of the earth" (Mt 5.13). As salt acts on food to preserve it and keep it from spoiling, Christ's followers are to influence the world for good and to preserve from corruption the truths He taught them. In the rite of baptism salt is especially a symbol of wisdom--that the subject be given a relish for heavenly doctrine; and a symbol of a blessed immortality--that he be preserved from final corruption. In the ancient rite the first stage, enrolling of catechumens, terminated with the giving of blessed salt.}

6. The priest blesses salt, which once blessed may serve for future baptisms;* (unless he is to use salt that already has been blessed).

God's creature, salt, I cast out the demon from you, in the name of God + the Father almighty, in the love of our Lord Jesus + Christ, and in the strength of the Holy + Spirit. I purify you by the living God, the true God, the holy God, by God who created you to be a preservative for mankind, and ordered you to be sanctified by His ministers for the benefit of the people who are about to embrace the faith. In the name of the Blessed Trinity may you become a saving sign empowered to drive away the enemy. Therefore, we beg you, Lord, our God, to sanctify + and to bless + this creature, salt, thus providing a perfect remedy for all who receive it, one that will permeate their inmost being. We ask this in the name of our Lord Jesus Christ, who is coming to judge both the living and the dead and the world by fire.

All: Amen.

* When a deacon administers baptism he uses salt already blessed by a priest.--Trans.

7. The priest puts a pinch of the blessed salt in the mouth of the child (to each one), saying as he does so:

N., take this salt in sign of wisdom. May it be for you likewise a token that foreshadows everlasting life.

All: Amen.

Priest: Peace be with you.

All: And also with you.

{In the next prayer there is an allusion to the Eucharist, the "heavenly nourishment" the child will receive after he is baptized.}

The priest then adds this prayer:

For one:
Let us pray.

God of our fathers, God, source of all truth, we humbly ask you to be well disposed to your servant, N. After this first[3] taste of salt, let his (her) hunger for heavenly nourishment not be prolonged but soon be satisfied. For then he (she) will always pay homage to your holy name with fervor, joy, and trust.[4] In your tender care, O Lord, lead him (her) to the bath of water where one is born over again, so that taken into the family of your faithful he (she) can finally attain the everlasting reward which you have promised; through Christ our Lord.

All: Amen.
For several:
Let us pray.

God of our fathers, God, source of all truth, we humbly ask you to be well disposed to your servants, N. and N. After this first[3] taste of salt, let their hunger for heavenly nourishment not be prolonged but soon be satisfied. For then they will always pay homage to your holy name with fervor, joy, and trust.[4] In your tender care, O Lord, lead them to the bath of water where one is born over again, so that taken into the family of your faithful they can finally attain the everlasting reward which you have promised; through Christ our Lord.

All: Amen.

Exorcism of the Subject

{In early times the catechumen had at this stage advanced to the rank of a petitioner. He continued with his instructions, was examined, and was subjected to the first scrutinies. Elements of the ancient rite are here preserved, especially in the solemn exorcism that follows. The priest now uses the power of exorcism received from Christ to free the person from the tyranny of Satan and to fit him throughout life for the whole Christian warfare against sin. The ancient enemy of mankind seeks to dispute with the Son of God for the possession of a man's soul. But in this confrontation Jesus is victorious as He was when once Himself tempted in the desert.}

The priest says:

I cast you out, unclean spirit, in the name of the Father, + and of the Son, + and of the Holy + Spirit. Depart and stay far away from this servant (these servants) of God, N. (N. and N.). For it is the Lord Himself who commands you, accursed and doomed spirit, He who walked on the sea and reached out His hand to Peter as he was sinking. So then, foul fiend, recall the curse that decided your fate once for all. Indeed, pay homage to the living and true God, pay homage to Jesus Christ, His Son, and to the Holy Spirit. Keep far from this servant (these servants) of God, N. (N. and N.), for Jesus Christ, our Lord and God, has freely called him (her) (them) to His holy grace and blessed way and to the waters of baptism.

{Under seal of the cross the child is now given over to the custody of Christ. We recall here the words of the Apocalypse: "Then I saw another angel rising out of the East, carrying the seal of the living God; and he called aloud to the four angels who had been given the power to ravage land and sea: 'Do no damage to sea or land or trees until we have set the seal of our God upon the foreheads of His servants'" (7.2- 3).}

8. Now the priest traces the sign of the cross upon the brow of the child (on each one), saying as he does so:

Never dare, accursed fiend, to desecrate this seal of the holy + cross which we imprint upon his (her) brow; through Christ our Lord.

All: Amen.

Prayer of Enlightenment

{In former times the exercises in preparation for baptism included readings from and instructions on the Holy Bible. The readings chosen were episodes or incidents from the Old Testament which prefigured baptism, such as the miraculous water of Meriba (Num 20.1-3), the cure of Naaman the leper (4 Kgs 5.1-14), and the prophecy about the restoration of Sion (Is 49.8-15); and especially the gospel accounts of the Samaritan woman (Jn 4.6-42) and the man born blind (Jn 9.1-39). These readings served to illumine the deep significance of the sacrament. The living waters of baptism give the grace both of healing and enlightenment, somewhat as our Lord once gave bodily sight to the man born blind and spiritual sight to the Samaritan woman.}

For the Jews the laying on of hands was a religious rite, both in the official liturgy and in private life. There is a fine example of this in the Gospel, the occasion when little children were brought to our Lord. St. Mark tells us that "embracing them and laying hands on them He blessed them" (10.16). St. Matthew in the parallel passage adds the interesting detail that this blessing was accompanied by a prayer (19.13).

9. The priest next lays his hand on the head of the child (on each one), after which he holds his hand outstretched and says (notice the change in wording when supplying ceremonies after private baptism: consult the footnote):

For one
Let us pray.

Holy Lord, almighty Father, everlasting God, source of light and truth, I appeal to your sacred and boundless compassion on behalf of this servant of yours, N. Be pleased to enlighten him (her) by the light of your eternal wisdom. Cleanse, sanctify, and endow him (her) with true knowledge.[5] For thus will he (she) be made ready for the grace of your baptism and ever remain steadfast, never losing hope, never faltering

in duty, never straying from sacred truth; through Christ our Lord.

All: Amen.
For several
Let us pray.

Holy Lord, almighty Father, everlasting God, source of light and truth, I appeal to your sacred and boundless compassion on behalf of these servants of yours, N. and N. Be pleased to enlighten them by the light of your eternal wisdom. Cleanse, sanctify, and endow them with true knowledge.[5] For thus will they be made ready for the grace of your baptism and ever remain steadfast, never losing hope, never faltering in duty, never straying from sacred truth; through Christ our Lord.

All: Amen.

10. Then the priest places the left end of his stole on the first child only and conducts him (her)--followed by the others--into the holy place; in doing so he says:

Come into God's sanctuary, N. (N. and N.), where you will be given a share with Christ in everlasting life.

All: Amen.

INSIDE THE CHURCH EDIFICE

The procession then makes its way to the baptistery. In a solemn baptism the organ may be played and hymns sung at this time. See the special music supplement for the voice and organ parts for the text given below.

HYMNS
Psalm 99

All: Arise, come to your God, * sing Him your songs of rejoicing.

P: Sing joyfully to the Lord, all the earth; serve the Lord with gladness; * come before Him singing for joy.

All: Arise, come to your God, * sing Him your songs of rejoicing.

P: Know that the Lord is God. He made us, we belong to Him, * we are His people, the sheep He tends.

All: Arise, come to your God, * sing Him your songs of rejoicing.

P: Enter His gates, giving thanks. Enter His courts with praise; * give thanks to Him and bless His name.

All: Arise, come to your God, * sing Him your songs of rejoicing.

P: Indeed, the Lord is good; His kindness endures forever; * He is faithful from age to age.

All: Arise, come to your God, * sing Him your songs of rejoicing.

P: Give glory to the Father in heaven, to His Son, Jesus Christ, our Lord, * to the Spirit who dwells in our hearts.

All: Arise, come to your God, * sing Him your songs of rejoicing.

Psalm 22

P: The Lord is my shepherd; I shall not want. * In verdant pastures He gives me repose.

All: Beside restful waters He leads me * He refreshes my soul.

P: He guides me in right paths * for His name's sake.

All: Even though I walk in the dark valley * I fear no evil; for you are at my side

P: With your rod and your staff * that give me courage.

All: You spread the table before me * in the sight of my foes;

P: You anoint my head with oil; * my cup overflows.

All: Only goodness and kindness follow me * all the days of my life;

P: And I shall dwell in the house of the Lord * for years to come.

All: Glory be to the Father.

P: As it was in the beginning.

{The Church has now thrown open her doors to the child and welcomed him into God's house. The procession comes to the baptistery but halts before the gates. In the time of the catechumenate a special day in Lent was assigned for entrusting (traditio) the candidates with the Creed, the Lord's Prayer, and the Gospels--the whole deposit of faith. The celebrant, especially if he was the bishop, commented on the Creed, article by article, and on the Lord's Prayer, petition by petition; and delivered a homily on each of the four Gospels. Having memorized the Creed and the Lord's Prayer, the candidates solemnly recited these aloud (redditio) before the celebrant on another day assigned for this ceremony. It is the latter that is being recalled in what follows.}

AT THE GATES OF THE BAPTISTERY

The Creed and Lord's Prayer

11. Priest: Will you please recite the Creed?

All: I believe in God, the Father almighty, Creator of heaven and earth. And in Jesus Christ, His only Son, our Lord; who was conceived by the Holy Spirit, born of the Virgin Mary, suffered under Pontius Pilate, was crucified, died, and was buried. He descended into hell; the third day He arose again from the dead. He ascended into heaven, and sits at the right hand of God, the Father almighty; from there He shall come to judge the living and the dead. I believe in the Holy Spirit, the holy Catholic Church, the communion of saints, the forgiveness of sins, the resurrection of the body, and life everlasting. Amen. Priest: Now please say the Lord's Prayer.

All: Our Father, who art in heaven, hallowed be thy name; thy kingdom come, thy will be done on earth as it is in heaven. Give us this day our daily bread; and forgive us our trespasses, as we forgive those who trespass against us; and lead us not into temptation, but deliver us from evil. Amen.

{In early times the catechumens were called the elect at this final stage. The next rites enshrine what remains of the very impressive former rites of initiation. The great scrutiny, also called opening of ears, took place in some parts of the Church on Wednesday of the fourth week in Lent (in Rome, at St. Paul's Church). The exorcism of the Evil One, now held at the baptistery, is the final and definitive one.}

12. Having his back turned to the gates of the baptistery, the priest

says (notice the change in wording when supplying ceremonies after private baptism; consult the footnote):

Final Exorcism
For one

I cast you out, every unclean spirit, in the name of God + the Father almighty, in the name of Jesus + Christ, His Son, our Lord and judge, and in the power of the Holy + Spirit. Begone, Satan, from God's handiwork, N. Because our Lord (has) graciously called him her to His holy sanctuary, where he (she) will become a dwelling place for the living God, a dwelling place for the Holy Spirit. We ask this in the name of Christ our Lord, who is coming to judge both the living and the dead and the world and the dead and the world by fire.

All: Amen.
For several

I cast you out, every unclean spirit, in the name of God + the Father almighty, in the name of Jesus + Christ, His Son, our Lord and judge, and in the power of the Holy + Spirit. Begone, Satan, from God's handiwork, N. and N. Because our Lord has graciously called them to His holy sanctuary, where they will become a dwelling place for the living God, a dwelling place for the Holy Spirit. We ask this in the name of Christ our Lord, who is coming to judge both the living and the dead and the world by fire.

All: Amen.

Touching of the Ears and Nostrils

Christ used this action and these words in healing the deaf-mute, although He actually touched the ears and mouth, not the nostrils. The change of touching the nostrils instead of the mouth was made quite early by the Church, at least by the fourth or fifth century, for we find that St. Ambrose said: "For the sake of propriety the nostrils are touched instead of the tongue." Here the action and words signify that the inner faculties are being attuned and sharpened to perceive the good news of Christ's redeeming grace and its fragrance.

13. The priest then moistens his thumb with his spittle and touches the ears and nostrils of the child (each one). The use of saliva may be omitted for reasons of hygiene, when there is fear of contracting or communicating disease (by order of Pius XII in 1944). But the ceremony itself is not omitted. He touches first the right ear then the left, saying:

Ephpheta, which means: Be opened. Next touching the nostrils, he adds:

And perceive the fragrance of God's loving ways. But you, evil spirit, begone, for the judgment of God has come.

Threefold Renunciation of Satan

{The child, through the sponsors, now publicly renounces the devil three times, corresponding to the later threefold profession of faith. In Eastern Christendom the candidates used to turn to the West, a symbol of darkness and evil and the lair of evil spirits, and actually spat in that direction to show their loathing for the father of darkness. Then they turned to the East, the region of the rising sun, that part of the world where the ancients thought Paradise was and which they also regarded as the scene of Christ's second coming, to swear allegiance to our Lord whom they called the sun of holiness. We can learn from this that baptism requires a reorientation or conversion of the whole man.}

14. The priest questions the candidate by name (each one):

Priest: N., do you renounce Satan?

Sponsors: I do renounce him.

P: And all his works?

Sponsors: I do renounce them.

P: And all his attractions?

Sponsors: I do renounce them.

Anointing for Spiritual Combat

{The Christian life is a contest and a struggle against the powers of evil. Therefore, as an athlete of Christ the baptismal candidate is anointed with oil, signifying that he is willing to engage in the contest, and that he is being given suppleness and strength for this purpose. In olden times the entire body of the candidate was anointed, in imitation of wrestlers and athletes who anointed their entire bodies with olive oil prior to entering the arena. In the present form the anointing is reduced to the chest and shoulders.}

15. The priest dips his thumb in the oil of catechumens and anoints the child (each one) in the form of a cross on the breast and on the back between the shoulders, pronouncing only once these words:

I anoint + you with the oil that sanctifies in Christ Jesus our Lord, that you may have everlasting life.

All: Amen.

16. Afterward he wipes his thumb and the spots anointed with cotton or similar material.

17. Remaining in the same place outside the gates of the baptistery, he exchanges the purple stole for a white one. (In a more solemn baptism he also changes the cope.) Then he enters the baptistery and so do the sponsors with the child.

INSIDE THE BAPTISTERY

{The candidate is now brought to the baptismal font, which the fathers call the womb of Mother Church. And from this symbolic womb the child will emerge a new creature, as St. Paul says. The font with its water has been consecrated on the previous Easter night with most impressive prayers and rites, showing that a life-giving quality has been imparted to it by the Spirit of Christ, as signified by the prayer formulas, by the act of plunging into it the paschal candle (a symbol of Christ), and by pouring in the fragrant sacred oils (also a symbol of Christ and His grace).}

Final Profession of Faith

{The candidate now makes a threefold profession of faith, in the three Persons of the Blessed Trinity, in whose name he is to be baptized, thus showing clearly that baptism is the "sacrament of faith," as the Church's tradition refers to it.}

Standing beside the font the priest puts the following questions to each one to be baptized, calling him (her) by name. The sponsors give the answers:

Priest: N., do you believe in God, the Father almighty, Creator of heaven and earth?

Sponsors: I do believe.

P: Do you believe in Jesus Christ, His only Son, our Lord, who was born into this world and suffered for us? Sponsors: I do believe.

P: And do you believe in the Holy Spirit, the holy Catholic Church, the communion of saints, the forgiveness of sins, the resurrection of the body, and life everlasting? Sponsors: I do believe.

18. Then calling him (her) by name the priest inquires (of each one)[6] (notice the omissions when supplying ceremonies; consult the footnote):

Priest: N., do you wish to be baptized?

Sponsors: I do.

Act of Baptizing

{We come now to the most highly symbolic act of the whole rite: baptism in water which signifies and effects the cleansing of the soul, death and burial of the old life that comes from Adam, and resurrection to the new life that comes from union with Christ. No words can tell more eloquently what transpires here than these quotations from Sacred Scripture:

"I will pour out on you pure water and you shall be purified. I will cleanse you of all your stains and of all your idols, and I will give you a new heart" (Ez 36.25).

"Christ also loved the Church and gave Himself up for it, to consecrate it, cleansing it by water and word, so that He might present the Church to Himself all glorious, with no stain or wrinkle or anything of the sort, but holy and without blemish" (Eph 5.26-27).

"Let us make our approach in sincerity of heart and full assurance of faith, our guilty hearts sprinkled clean, our bodies washed with pure water" (Heb 10.22).

"Have you forgotten that when we were baptized into union with Jesus Christ we were baptized into His death? By baptism we were buried with Him, and lay dead, in order that, as Christ was raised from the dead in the splendor of the Father, so also we might set our feet upon the new path of life" (Rom 6.3-4).

"Baptized into union with Him, you have all put on Christ as a garment" (Gal 3.27).

"For in baptism you were buried with Him, in baptism also you were raised to life with Him" (Col 2.12).}

19. As the godfather or godmother (or both if two sponsors are used) holds the child, the priest takes water from the font with a ladle, pours it three times in the form of a cross on the head of the child, and while pouring pronounces only once distinctly and attentively the words:

N., I baptize you in the name of the Father, + (here he pours the first time) and of the Son, + (pouring a second time) and of the Holy + Spirit (pouring a third time).

20. But where it is the custom to baptize by immersion, the priest takes the child, and handling it carefully so that it will not be injured be baptizes with a threefold immersion, pronouncing the words only once:

N., I baptize you in the name of the Father, + and of the Son, + and of the Holy + Spirit.

21. Forthwith the godfather or godmother (or both of them together if there are two) lifts the child from the holy font, receiving it from the priest.

22. If there is doubt whether the child has already been baptized, the following form is used:

N., if you are not baptized, I baptize you in the name of the Father, + and of the Son, + and of the Holy + Spirit.

Anointing With Chrism

{To show further that baptism identifies the Christian with Christ, the newly baptized is now anointed with the holy oil of chrism. According to long-standing tradition priests and kings are anointed with oil. Christ our High Priest and King of kings received a supernatural anointing from His heavenly Father. So also the child, newly made a Christian, is given the priestly anointing, because through baptism he shares in the priesthood of Christ; and the anointing is done on the crown of the head, because he shares likewise in the kingship of Christ. Another reason for the anointing is that baptism imprints on the soul an indelible character, marking one with the sign of membership in the Church and designating the right to participate in her worship.}

23. The priest dips his thumb in holy chrism, and in the form of a cross anoints the child (each one) on the crown of the head, saying: The almighty God, Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, has caused you to be born over again of water and the Holy Spirit and pardoned you all your sins. May He now anoint + you with the chrism that sanctifies in Christ Jesus our Lord, and bring you to everlasting life.

All: Amen.

Priest: Peace be with you.

All: And also with you.

The priest wipes his thumb and the place anointed with cotton.

Bestowal of the White Robe

{In ancient times when baptism was administered by immersion, the candidates stripped off their old garments before descending into the font, never to wear them again. Figuratively it meant putting off the old man of sin who stems from Adam. On coming out of the font after baptism they clothed themselves in new white garments in sign of their new innocence and purity; or as St. Paul says, "putting on Christ as a garment." This is reminiscent of our Lord's parable of the wedding garment. The present ceremony is a token of the onetime fuller symbolism.}

24. The priest puts a white linen cloth (in place of the white garment) on the head of the child (on each one), saying:

Take this white robe and keep it spotless until you arrive at the judgment seat of our Lord Jesus Christ, that you may be rewarded with everlasting life.

All: Amen.

Bestowal of the Blessed Candle

{In a final ceremony the newly baptized is presented with a lighted candle. Formerly it was a burning torch instead; and with burning torches held aloft the "newborn from the dead" marched into the church to assist for the first time at the Eucharist, singing as they went, the psalm, "I will go to the altar of God." This is reminiscent of the parable of the wise and foolish virgins. The present rite points up the truth that baptism is related not only to the past--the sacrifice of Christ; not only to the present--the grace of new birth; but also to the future--the glory of the life to come.}

25. Next the priest presents a lighted candle to the newly baptized (to each one) or to the sponsors, saying:

Take this burning candle as a reminder to keep your baptismal innocence. Obey God's commandments, so that when our Lord comes for the joyous wedding feast you may go forth to meet Him with all the saints in the halls of heaven, and be happy with Him forevermore.

All: Amen.

26. In conclusion the priest says:

Go in peace, N. (N. and N.), and may the Lord be with you.

All: Amen.

27. The rite described above must be observed also by a deacon who administers solemn baptism; however, he uses salt and water blessed previously for this purpose by a priest.

28. When children of both sexes are to be baptized, during the interrogations the boys are placed to the right, the girls to the left; and everything is said as above, using the proper gender and plural number. However, the first questions, the exsufflation, the signing with the cross, the touching of the ears and nostrils with spittle, the questions concerning the renunciations, the anointing with oil of catechumens, the questions on the chief articles of the Creed, the actual baptizing, the anointing with chrism, the bestowal of the white garment and the lighted candle--each one of these ceremonies must be applied separately to each individual, beginning always with the boys and finishing with the girls.

For greater convenience these matters are noted in their proper place by rubrics contained in parentheses. Thus when the term "to each person" occurs in a given rubric, it is to be understood that the words are to be said or the action performed separately for each person until the next rubric, beginning with the boys and finishing with the girls using the proper terms of gender as stated above. But if in a similar rubric the term "for all in common" occurs, it is to be understood that the words should be employed only once for all in common until the next rubric.

29. If a child or an adult is ill, and so seriously that he might die before baptism could be completed, the priest, omitting all that precedes the act of baptizing, should baptize at once with a threefold or even a single ablution in the form of a cross, saying: I baptize you, etc.

If baptismal water is not available and necessity urges, the priest should use ordinary water. Then if he has chrism with him he anoints the person on the forehead, saying: "The almighty God," etc., as above, Next he places on him the white garment, saying: Take this white robe, etc., as above. Lastly, he presents the lighted candle with the words: "Take this burning candle," etc., as above.

If the one thus baptized recovers, all ceremonies omitted should be supplied later.

30. When several are to be baptized in imminent danger of death. and time does not allow that each be baptized separately, the minister is permitted to baptize all at one time, pouring water on the head of each with the one form: "I baptize you in the name of the Father, + and of the Son, + and of the Holy + Spirit." However, this manner of baptizing may never be used unless danger of death renders impossible the time required to baptize each one separately.

31. The sponsors should be reminded of the spiritual relationship which they contract with the one baptized; this relationship is a diriment impediment to matrimony.

32. The pastor should admonish the parents that neither they nor a nurse should allow the child to sleep in the same bed with them, for there is danger that the child might be smothered. Rather, they should watch over the child with tender solicitude, and give it proper rearing in the Christian way of life.

33. The parents, and if necessary others responsible, are to be advised that under no condition are they to confide an infant for suckling or nursing to the care of a woman who is a Jewess, infidel, or heretic.

34. Before the child is taken out of church or before the sponsors depart, the pastor should carefully enter all names and other data of the baptism in the baptismal register in the manner prescribed.

35. If baptism was not administered by one's own pastor nor in his presence, the one who administered it should as soon as possible give notification thereof to the pastor of the one baptized.

36. To prove that baptism has been conferred, the testimony of one trustworthy witness or the oath of the baptized person himself if he was baptized in adult age is sufficient, unless the rights of another party are prejudiced thereby.

ENDNOTES

1. In supplying ceremonies: whom it has already pleased you, etc.

2. In supplying ceremonies add the following:

May the taste of salt be for him (her) (them) a medicine and help him (her) (them) make good use of the grace received in baptism; through Christ our Lord.

All: Amen.

3. In supplying ceremonies the word first is omitted.

4. In supplying ceremonies the priest here says the following:

For one: In your tender care, O Lord, you have led him (her) to the bath of water where one is born over again. And having been taken into the family of your faithful, may he (she) finally attain the everlasting reward which you have promised; through Christ our Lord.

R: Amen.

For several: In your tender care, O Lord, you have led them to the bath of water where one is born over again. And having been taken into the family of your faithful, may they finally attain the everlasting reward which you have promised; through Christ our Lord.

R: Amen.

5. In supplying ceremonies the priest says instead:

Enable him (her) (them) to use well the grace received in baptism and ever remain steadfast, never losing hope, never faltering in duty never straying from sacred truth; through Christ our Lord. R: Amen.

6. In supplying ceremonies omit nos. 18-22 and go to no. 23, anointing with chrism.

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